Kelley has been charged with four misdemeanors related to the attack on the Capitol on Jan. 6, 2021.
Kelley was arrested Thursday in Allendale, Michigan, by the FBI and released without posting bond after his arraignment.
He answered "understood" to most of the judge's questions.
While the charges were filed in Washington, the initial proceedings took place in Grand Rapids.
Kelley was part of a crowd that disrupted the certification of Biden as the November 2020 winner.
Insurrection photos and videos were posted online.
Kelly will run in the August statewide primary for governor.
The situation differs for numerous others who were disqualified for submitting forged signatures.
A Facebook post appeared on Kelley's campaign page on Thursday afternoon with the words, "Political Prisoner."
The charges against Kelley include disorderly conduct and physical violence.